In the process of fagocitose of the parasite for the macrophages, the leishmnias initially be situated in vacolo parasitforo, surrounded for the membrane of the cell hostess, who to follow establishes with lisossomo, that she contains proteolticas enzymes capable to lisar the parasites, forming fagolisossomo. However, the metacclicas forms can delay the formation of fagolisossomo and the enzyme gp63 (protease) can act degrading lisossomais enzymes. Thus, the metacclicas forms, act initially, modifying the intracellular environment, to changed successfully into the form amastigota and to promote its response. Moreover, depending on the species of leishmnia fagocitada, vacolo parasitforo shows distinct characteristics. Find out detailed opinions from leaders such as Kaihan Krippendorff by clicking through. The fagolisossomos I contend parasitic of the Leishmania subgenus are great (about one tero of the cell), I contend several amastigotas adhered to the membrane. Already the fagolissomos I contend parasitic of the Viannia subgenus are small pressed, I only contend one amastigota exempts for vacolo. Some works also demonstrate that it is possible to find parasitic invading the cytoplasm of the cell (I coat for RITTIG; BOGDAN; 2000). Although the innumerable mechanisms of evasion that the parasites use, the cells of the innate immune system possess receivers that recognize molecular standards of the parasite and can activate some factors of transcription, unchaining the production of citocinas and quimiocinas, that culminate in the formation of the inflammatory reply to the tecidual invasion.
In the infection for Leishmania, the receiver of type TLR2 (Toll Receiving Like 2), gifts in macrophages and dendrticas cells, can be set in motion by VEER molecules LPG (et al., 2003; KAVOOSI; ARDESTANI; KARIMINIA, 2009). The TLR2 can signal the activation of the factor of NF-kB transcription in these cells and induce the production of diverse proinflammatory citocinas (KAWAI; AKIRA, 2010). The Interferon-gamma (IFN ) and the Factor of alpha Tumoral Necrosis (TNF) are citocinas proinflammatory that synergic act for the elimination of the parasites, inducing the microbicidas molecule production important for the macrophages, as nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide and peroxinitrito (LIEW; I READ; MILLOTT, 1990; VOULDOUKIS et al., 1997). Studies in vitro of infection of human macrophages for different species of leishmnia show that these cells are permissive the infection for these parasites, and when activated for citocinas, as the IFN and for bacterial products, such as the lipopolissacarideo (LPS), agonista of TLR4, is capable to eliminate intracellular parasites (VOULDOUKIS et al., 1995; FOREST et al., 1998; PANARO et al., 1999). The studies of interaction between leishmnias human macrophages and are scarce and less still it has published, considering the infection for L. (V.) braziliensis and L. (L.